The European Space Agency (ESA) does not have the leading role in crewed flight most Europeans, especially those in the space industry, would like it to have. The 1992 termination of the Hermes shuttle program was a turning point in the continent’s ambitions and is an enduring memory for many top executives in the sector. While ESA does not operate a crewed vehicle, European skills have been recognized. Commander positions were filled at the International Space Station (ISS) by ESA ...

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