It has been three years since London’s Heathrow Airport began using Time-Based Separation (TBS) to reduce the gaps between landing aircraft and incrementally boost runway capacity. Since the system went live in 2015, the tool has helped air traffic controllers improve the airport’s punctuality by 1.5%, reduced airborne holding times—long a source of frustration for airlines and their passengers—and perhaps more crucially, helped to increase safety by reducing ...


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