专家问答: 掌握“数字孪生”与“数字线程”技术：航空航天与国防（A&D）领域数字化的关键所在 | Mastering Digital Twins And Digital Threads: The Keys To Digitalization In A&D
“数字孪生”和“数字线程”是一切数字化战略的关键要素；人们都在谈论它们，但很少有公司能够为我们明确介绍这些术语究竟意指何物。《航空周刊》对西门子数字工业软件公司 A&D 战略部总监约翰·奥康纳（John O’Connor）进行了采访，了解数字化相关以及国防企业如何凭借更为先进的工具获取优势等问题。
Digital twins and digital threads are key elements of any digitalization strategy; everyone is talking about them, but few companies say what exactly they mean by the terms. Aviation Week interviews John O’Connor, Director, A&D Strategy at Siemens Digital Industries Software about digitalization and how better tools can give defense companies an edge.
Q Why is speed so important in the aerospace sector?
“挣扎落伍者”没有创造出定义明确的设计产品，它们在一些情形中仍完全依赖基于稿纸的 2D 设计方法。这些公司远远落后于技术发展水平，它们的进度常落后于计划，且耗资往往超出预算开支。“高价创新者”制造出了十分出色的高性能产品，但产量非常小。虽然它们的产品得到了高度优化和充分定义，但它们在过渡到制造阶段时往往会失败，因为他们不能有效地生产设计产品。“高效模仿者”具备良好的内部开发流程，但缺乏开发创新性概念潜力的必要能力。
A: The speed with which companies innovate and bring products to customers has a direct bearing on their potential for growth and profitability. Product development cycle time is commonly used to measure this potential. Today many A&D companies are investing in digitalization to improve their performance against this metric.
Siemens offers an evaluation to help companies understand how well they are positioned to compete in terms of digitalization maturity. It positions companies into four categories: strategic leaders, expensive innovators, efficient imitators, and struggling laggards. “Struggling laggards” don’t create well defined designs, in some cases they still rely exclusively on 2D paper-based design methods. These companies are well behind the state of the art, they’re frequently behind schedule and often over budget. “Expensive innovators” make impressive, high-performance products, but they make very few of them. While their products are highly optimized and fully defined, they often fail when they transition into manufacturing because they can’t efficiently produce the design. “Efficient Imitators,” have good internal development processes but lack the capabilities necessary to exploit the potential of innovative concepts.
Finally, there are the “strategic leaders.” These companies combine the best characteristics of expensive innovators and efficient imitators. They have fast engineering processes and the flow of data is smooth with good digital representations of the design and its manufacturing methods. This is achieved with high fidelity digital twins coupled by strong digital threads across the development process. While there are many success factors to consider, their digitalization strategies are key.
Q: What do you mean by digital twins and digital threads?
A: Digital twins are virtual representations of designs or manufacturing processes. They are fully authoritative. Associated with them are digital threads that move these representations through the phases of development. The digital twins evolve as they move along digital threads providing information for each step in the process.
Q: How do digital twins and threads fit into digitalization strategy?
A: As you can see from the digitalization maturity discussion above, expensive innovators lack a useful digital thread, efficient imitators lack a strong digital twin, and struggling laggards lack both.
These twin and thread concepts are core to implementing a digitalization strategy that really works. You can’t achieve desired business outcomes without both. For this reason, Siemens has invested in delivering capabilities that integrate both concepts in a uniquely complementary way.
A bad twin with a great thread does not matter, a great twin without a thread is not commercially viable. Having a good digitalization strategy takes both concepts – digital twins and digital threads – and uses them to reduce product development cycle time.
Q: How much difference can digitalization make in terms of speed?
答：仅基于“数字孪生模型”，我们保守估计西门子 Xcelerator 数字商业平台可以比竞争对手的方案快 20% 。在多个产品周期中，这能帮助使用西门子 Xcelerator 商业平台的公司领先于其竞争对手整整一代产品。
A: Based on digital twin modeling alone, we conservatively believe that Siemens Xcelerator can be 20% faster than competing solutions. Over multiple product cycles this puts companies that use Siemens Xcelerator a full product generation ahead of their competition.
To view the full interview, go to aviationweek.com/digitalization