When an aircraft flies through turbulence, the abrupt changes in velocity and direction of the freestream airflow can momentarily cause a change in the angle of attack (AOA), which in turn causes a change in the wing’s lift and is felt as turbulence. In transonic flight this rapid AOA change would also increase the onset of buffet. In general, it is true that today’s modern aircraft have much more generous “buffet margins” than those of earlier generations. However, ...

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