In the 1960s and ’70s most sophisticated aircraft instrument panels were little different from those developed during World War II. Symbology — what there was of it — was white on a black background; attitude indicators comprised a horizon bar and aircraft symbol; directional gyros had to be caged and uncaged periodically because of precession; and pilots had to know how to fly “needle, ball and airspeed” when the vacuum gyros quit. In spite of the relative ...


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