Cantilever Monoplanes Part of the DNA of the modern airliner can be found in the Junkers F.13, a four-passenger, low-wing cantilever monoplane that was clad in corrugated metal skin. First flown in 1919, the Hugo Junkers-designed aircraft was an instant step change from its wood-and-fabric biplane contemporaries, and highly durable. The skin, made from an aluminum alloy called Duralumin, was partially stressed and helped the wing spars carry shear loads. The success of the F.13 paved the ...

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