Before fly-by-wire (FBW), it was virtually assured that the flight controls on both sides of a cockpit would move in unison, giving pilots a direct, intuitive and non-verbal understanding of what the other was doing. With the advent of FBW, starting with the Airbus A320 family, however, sidesticks were made to be passive and independent of each other. The design decision has led to human factors issues in some cases, prompting calls from international safety organizations for specialized ...

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