Development of LEDs began more than a century ago, but the first practical versions were produced in General Electric labs in the 1960s. Until 1968, visible and infrared LEDs cost on the order of $200 per unit, and thus had little practical use. In 1968, Monsanto mass-produced visible red LEDs suitable for indicators. Hewlett-Packard advanced the concept for uses in alphanumeric displays, which were integrated into HP's early handheld calculators. In the 1970s, commercially successful ...

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