Europe’s Mars Express has begun a series of new flybys of Phobos that could help scientists untangle the puzzle of the moon’s mysterious origin. Mars Express frequently passes Phobos; but due to an orbital adjustment last year, it will approach much nearer this time than before. At its closest encounter, on Mar. 3, the probe will come to within 50 km. (31 mi.) of the Martian moon, sufficient to obtain an unprecedented map of its gravity field. During the flyby campaign, which started on Feb. ...


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