Europe's ExoMars program is on shaky ground. Since the departure of NASA and the arrival of Russia, the cost of the two-pronged Mars mission has been increasing. For the past four years, the European Space Agency (ESA) has been unable to come up with more than €850 million ($1.1 billion) to fund a campaign that was supposed to cost ESA €1 billion, at most. Under the new configuration with Russia, the cost is expected to balloon to €1.2 billion, despite Russia's offer of two Proton rocket ...


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