The Sept. 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. and a subsequent chemical plant explosion here cast a pall over the 50th-anniversary International Astronautical Federation congress, keeping many U.S. attendees at home and blanketing the congress site in this picturesque medieval city with tight security. Still, conference organizers counted some 1,600 attendees from 45 countries, plus another 350 students. Many technical and plenary session chairmen had to juggle their lineups to replace the ...


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