Long in gestation and in endurance, Aurora Flight Sciences' Orion unmanned aircraft has made its first step toward demonstrating a 120-hr. flight at 20,000 ft., carrying a 1,000-lb. multi-sensor payload.
That would allow the Orion to provide continuous surveillance carrying a Predator-class payload with fewer takeoffs and landings than current medium-altitude, long-endurance UAVs flying 24-hr. missions, significantly reducing the manpower burden and operating cost.
The Orion demonstrator made its first flight from “a Western test range,” believed to be China Lake, Calif., on Aug. 24. Powered by a pair of fuel-efficient Austro Engine AE300 turbo-diesels, the aircraft flew for 3.5 hr., reaching an altitude of 8,000 ft. and airspeed of around 60 kt., says Tom Clancy, vice president of Aurora's unmanned air system business sector.
Within the, ownership of the Orion program has changed hands several times. Aurora declines to identify its current customer, but the U.S. Air Force tells Aviation Week it is the Big Safari program office, which manages the acquisition and modification of special-mission platforms.
When Aurora began work in 2006, it was with U.S. Army funding, and the Orion was planned to be a hydrogen-fueled, “high-altitude, long-loiter” (HALL) UAV. In 2008, the company submitted an unsolicited proposal to the Air Force Research Laboratory for a medium-altitude version of the Orion, powered by conventional engines. This led to a contract for the Medium-Altitude Global Intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and Communications relay (Magic) joint concept technology demonstration (JCTD).
Using the composite wing and tail of the original HALL design, the Orion was rolled out at Aurora's plant in Golden Triangle, Miss., in November 2010. It was then expected to fly in August 2011. “The program's progress has been funding-rate limited,” says Clancy. “The early phases of the Magic JCTD were completed, then we transitioned to a new program office,” he says. “But the basic objectives set at the beginning remain: a 120-hr. autonomous UAV carrying 1,000 lb. to 20,000 ft.”
The technical goals still align with those of Magic: “Affordability, through reduced takeoffs and landings; autonomy, to reduce training cost; and open architecture, to minimize the cost of upgrading or augmenting the mission system,” notes Clancy. “We are working toward plug-and-play, so we can change the mission suite with relative ease.”
There was no mission system on board for the Orion's first flight, but there will be a payload on the aircraft for the 120-hr. demonstration flight, expected to be conducted by mid-2014, he says, adding “A number of different multi-intelligence payloads are potentially part of the program.” Aurora had proposed building three aircraft for the Magic demo, but now “can't talk about whether there will be more than one,” Clancy says. He also cannot comment on whether there are any plans to deploy the system operationally.
The Orion has a long-span, one-piece composite wing for low drag and light weight, two keys to extended endurance at medium altitude. Another is the fuel-efficient turbo-diesel engines, which burn jet fuel. Two other long-endurance UAV aimed at the 100-hr.-plus mark—'s Global Observer and 's Phantom Eye—are hydrogen-fueled and designed to fly at high altitude. Both flew only a handful of times and are currently without a customer.
Long endurance also requires high reliability, and the autonomy and redundancy of the Orion system architecture are similar to Aurora's Centaur optionally piloted aircraft, a modified Diamond DA 42. “Some pieces are triplex, some duplex. For extreme endurance, there can be no single-point failures,” Clancy says.
Control modes were evaluated during the first functional check flight, which included “a couple of approaches and go-arounds to check the autonomous systems before landing on the hard-surface runway,” he notes. Command and control of the Orion is “more-like than Predator-like,” and involves supervised autonomy—the operator “telling the aircraft what to do in broad terms such as takeoff, land and trajectory,” adds Clancy.
Flights will build up to the 120-hr. demo in the coming months. “It will be a significant reach to expand the envelope that far,” says Clancy. Aurora, meanwhile, has the capacity in place to make “multiple” aircraft per year at its Mississippi plant, he says, if the Orion can traverse the “somewhat tortuous path” from a technology demonstration to an operational program of record.
See video of the Orion making its first takeoff and landing on our Ares blog at: ow.ly/oZex9