“Cold Comfort” (AW&ST April 23/30, p. 84) highlights difficulties researchers have had in explaining and predicting the formation and accumulation of ice inside jet engines. It is quite possible this phenomena is biological in origin. Ice-nucleating bacteria are ubiquitous worldwide, and are often found at high altitudes. Apparently, these bacteria have proteins that are able to align water molecules in a crystalline structure that mimics the crystalline structure of ice. It is ...

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