FARNBOROUGH — Within the next three years, Lockheed Martin Space Systems expects more than half of its A2100 satellite bus to be built through additive manufacturing, the revolutionary fabrication process that promises drastically reduced hardware development costs and production cycle times.

Even without the benefits of so-called 3-D printing, the A2100 has seen a decrease in parts count by up to 60% in some subsystems, part of a technical refresh underway since early 2013.

"On the antenna reflectors alone there were 3,600 manual operations, and that’s going to zero on the new platform," says Richard Ambrose, executive vice president of Denver-based Lockheed Martin Space Systems.

In parallel, however, Ambrose says the company is identifying ways to save money and time through additive manufacturing of key technologies incorporated into the A2100 space bus. For the moment, the percentage is low — less than 10%.

"But my goal is to have over 50% of the structures 3-D-printed within two to three years," Ambrose said in an interview on the sidelines of the Farnborough air show here.

At least a dozen 3-D-printed brackets are already flying in space aboard NASA’s Juno mission, a Lockheed Martin-built, solar-powered spacecraft launched in 2011 on a six-year journey to the Jupiter system.

Ambrose says some brackets can take up to 30 hr. to machine by hand, while additive manufacturing can produce 300 of the same parts in a single day that are just as structurally sound.

For now, the A2100 propulsion system is the primary focus of the company’s additive manufacturing efforts, which aim to reduce production of fuel tanks from 18 months to a matter of weeks.

"I can print half a tank in three hours," Ambrose says, adding that the company has already pressure-tested one such article, with plans to conduct a full-qualification burst test later this year.

The next step, he says, is electronic chassis that today are machined from aluminum.

"The alloys are different in 3D printing, so we have to work through that and make sure we’re getting the quality right in the structure," he says. "I’m told they’re close to a solution."

Ambrose notes other space hardware manufacturers that are pushing the envelope of printed hardware, notably Boeing Co., Aerojet Rocketdyne and Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), all of which are responding in part to defense spending reductions that have opened the door to technological innovation, resulting in new materials and techniques that can reduce production time and lower costs.

To that end, Ambrose says, Lockheed Martin expects to almost halve the length of time necessary to build complex military satellite systems, which take up to eight years on average.

"Our goal is to get that down to under five years," Ambrose said. "We think that’s doable within the next three to five years."

In the meantime, one of the biggest challenges companies face is the cost to replace printing hardware, which can become obsolete within a year of purchase. Another obstacle is training engineers to design hardware with additive manufacturing in mind.

"We brought in some engineers that had just graduated from college and said ‘Go back to fundamentals, design something that you can’t machine,’" Ambrose said, adding that the result was a bracket with an order of magnitude reduction in mass.

"It looks like something you would never design, but it transfers the loads, transfers the thermal energy and works just fine," he said. "You can’t machine it, but you can print it."